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Classification of saffron types
Saffron can be classified into different types in both physical and content forms. In physical classification, saffron is classified based on form and shape, but the type of content is focused on the quality of saffron. Saffron classification criteria are different in different countries. In Spain, saffron is cultivated according to the criteria of the region, and in the second category, it is graded according to the length or thickness of the stigma and cream. In India, saffron is classified based on the purity and quality of the stigma or the combination of the stigma and cream, and in the UK based on characteristics such as color, aroma and taste. Saffron types differ in quality, purity and rust content. The quality of saffron depends on the place of cultivation as well as how it is dried.The best saffron in the world is cultivated in South Khorasan and in the cities of Ghaenat, Gonabad and Torbat Heydariyeh. Each saffron field consists of two parts, which is very important in distinguishing different types of saffron;
The first part of the stigma (red part of saffron)
The second part of the cream (white part of saffron)
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This model of saffron has a wonderful color and appearance and is very fragrant. In this type of saffron, three strands of stigmas are connected and are smooth and without fractures (unlike Sargol saffron, where the stigmas have fractures). This has made this type of saffron look better and more expensive than Sargol saffron, but people prefer to buy Sargol saffron, which has the same color and aroma as Negin saffron, on the other hand, it has a lower price. Foreign customers are more inclined to buy Negin saffron. Negin saffron itself is divided into two types, super jewel and pseudo-jewel. Pseudomon saffron is a type of saffron that in fact less care has been taken when cleaning it. Negin-like saffron has some yellowing next to the red stigma.In fact, it can be said that pseudo-gem is something between straw saffron and gem saffron. If Super Negin saffron, due to the large number of pens in the string, has a completely red color and its price is much higher than the quasi-Negin type.
It is the most consumed and common type of saffron for people to use and consumers are more familiar with this type of saffron. Sargol saffron has different grades such as premium, pen head and head; Abroad it is called AII-Red meaning completely red. In Sargol saffron, which is a pure saffron, the creamy part or the whiteness of the saffron is completely removed and only the red part remains; That is why it is called all red. Grading and price of Sargol saffron varies depending on the thickness of the stigmas, small or large, and the presence or absence of broken stigmas. It is difficult to determine the quality of the head.The quality of saffron is graded with two characteristics of "stigma length" and "presence or absence of white pieces of roots that are mixed with the load and take on a red color" and are graded from 1 to 3.
In straw saffron, saffron cream (white part) is separated from under the flower, so that the stigmas will have 2-3 mm of cream. At the end of the stigmas of the three branches of saffron, there is some yellow or white, which gives it a straw-like shape; That is why saffron is called straw. Straw saffron is divided into two types of puffed straw and ordinary straw. This model of saffron is graded from 1 to 3 based on the size and sagging of the stigma and the amount of cream attached to it. Straw saffron that has thick and smooth stigmas, no wrinkles and has less cream (root) is called straw, and straw saffron, which has a normal stalk and is eaten with more cream, is called ordinary straw.
Saffron is a complete string (girl twist) that has the red and yellow parts of saffron together. So that the yellow part is about 30 and the red part is about 70% of it. In this type of classification, saffron is intact and the stigmas of the three branches of saffron are not separated from the white part of the saffron (or saffron cream). The layout of this model is one-way and two-way. In the one-sided arrangement, the creams are stacked on top of each other and the stigmas are placed on top of each other, but in the two-sided arrangement, the stigmas are on both sides and the creams are in the middle.
White Saffron is not part of the classification of saffron types. After the flower is removed from the bunch, the root or white part, which in Iran is called the corner or white saffron, remains; This part is known in Europe as white or style (cream). It is generally believed that the saffron root has more aroma, but scientific studies and analyzes show that the red part of saffron has more valuable substances. One of these substances is crocin, which moves from the red stigma to the white root inside the saffron plant, and because the saffron cream part has more moisture, it causes more aroma to be inhaled from the saffron root. Saffron root does not contain Cronin (responsible for saffron coloring) but has the properties of red saffron.